Dr. Clarence O. Addo Yobo


The author of this short, precise primer on women' health is a Gynecologist who has practiced for several years both in the U.S.A and Ghana.


By the author:


Most Common Female Genital Infections

By Dr. Clarence Addo Yobo

Herpes Simplex Genitalis

These are recurrent small grouped vesicles on genital areas Type I and Type II. Type I is mostly on genitals especially among young women but both I &II are causative organisms unaffected female patrons are at greater risk than males.

About 40% of newly acquired cases of genital herpes are due to Type I. Symptoms are burning and stinging sensation around the vagina. Areas affected could be the labia, perianal skin area and the buttocks.

The vesicles may spontaneously dry up in weak forming crusts. What causes reactivation is not well understood. The ailment is very common occurrence in HIV infected individuals.

Self contamination may extend to throat and yes (Keratitis). Most recurrences belong to Type II Treatment is Acyclovir capsules and creams.

Herpes infection during pregnancy can affect the unborn at early stages of development and can induce congenital mal formations and bleeding central nervous system abnormalities.

An infected mother may transfer the viruses to the newborn during labour and delivery via the genital tract. Encephalitis and meningitis of the newborn with seizure disorders may be consequential.

Oftentimes, preceding this skin manifestations are constitutional symptoms flubike symptoms and asceptic meningitis. Recurrent cases do not give such constitutional symptoms.

Viral shedding is the worst time of reinfection to partners. The time frame is about 2 weeks after an acute episode when patients are relatively asymptomatic.

Recognition and diagnosis may be quite obvious with clusters of vesicles on the genitals, but can occasionally present as abrasions, cracks and tissues or excessive itching on the vulva without any apparent signs.

Viral cultures are helpful to pinpoint the diagnosis, but more often than not could prove negative. Other test “Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR) is more reliable (about 4 times more sensitive).

In cases of Rape and incest, the individual victim is given prophylaxis antiviral course of treatment for several days. Intravenous antiviral medications are recommended for encephalitis and meningitis.

Significant numbers of infected woman are overly distressed and may need counseling and psychological or psychiatric therapy. Request for HIV test may even compound the distressing mood.

If both couples are infected, counseling and preventive methods with the use of condoms are imperative. New vaccines are being developed for possible future prevention.


Genital warts are related to Human Papilo-virus (HPV). The appearance of the warts on external genitals had caused psychological and unacceptable dialogue between couples or lovers.

The ease of transmission and infecting patterns make it the most virulent and very painful with frequent reoccurrence. Other forms of chemical treatment had been available recently.

Human Papilo-virus Types 6 and 11 are found to be the causative agents. Appearance of lesions may range from 1 month to more than 2 years. The warts may grow on the clitoris, vulva and vaginal entrance.

They may appear as cauliflower shapes or dome shapes. Symptoms are itching, burning, path and occasional bleeding from scratching.

Women with genital warts should have their yearly PAP smears done regularly. Self applied chemicals are recommended by doctors. Some of the chemicals such as “Immiquimod” is the only drug of choice during pregnancy. Privacy is maintained by the self administered chemical.


Bartholin glands; a pair of mucus glands one on each side of the inlet of the vagina may be infected when the ductal openings get blocked usually by Gonoccocal bacteria.

These Bartholin glands secrete mucus during sexual arousal. Infected swollen glands are very painful and may be felt during standing, sitting or walking. It may be accompanied by chills and fever.

Some cases have been recorded following infected mediolateral episiotomy during vaginal delivery. Surgical procedures may be crucial, please do contact your Doctor for prompt treatment.




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